Quickribbon

Tallest Trees in Europe found in Portugal & Spain!

Share

Giant eucalypts found in ... Europe!



Dr. Dean Nicolle, Eucalyptus Botanist and Researcher, Director Currency Creek Arboretum, the most complete and biodiverse eucalypt collection in the world / Dr. Dean Nicolle, Botánico de Eucaliptos e Investigador, Director del Arboreto de Currency Creek, la coleccion mas completa y biodiversa de eucaliptos del mundo
Ever since seeing the inspiring red tingle (Eucalyptus jacksonii) trees in the far south-west of Western Australia as an eight-year old, I have been fascinated by the biggest and tallest trees of different species. And like all eucalypt-obsessed Australians (I assume there are many!), I like to claim that the tallest tree ever was a 130+ meter mountain ash (E. regnans) felled in Victoria sometime in the 1800s, even if the actual evidence for such a giant is scant.

But even if the tallest contemporary tree species is a non-eucalypt - the redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens; a non-flowering softwood up to 115 m tall) of the west coast of North America, we gum nuts can still brag about having the tallest ‘hardwood’ species, the tallest ‘flowering plant’, and the tallest tree in Australia (all applicable to the 99 m “Centurion" E. regnans in Tasmania - visit Tasmania's Giant Tree Register for more data). But that’s not enough for me…

While visiting my partner Annett in Germany in November 2010, I thought we should take the opportunity to see some eucalypts in southern Europe. There are ample data on big trees (‘big’ being variously defined) but few data on tall trees. Web-based searching led me to the web pages of Gustavo Iglesias (Eucalyptologics & GIT Forestry), where two potentially tall trees were highlighted – the ‘Grandfather Tree’ in Spain and the ‘Karri Knight’ in Portugal. What followed was a rapid-fire five day field trip with Gustavo, chasing eucalypts along the Atlantic coast of these two countries.

Dr. Dean Nicolle, Eucalyptus Botanist and Researcher, Director Currency Creek Arboretum, the most complete and biodiverse eucalypt collection in the world and Dr Annett Boerner, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry visit the mixed wet tall eucalypt forest of Northern Spain and Portugal / Dr. Dean Nicolle, Botánico de Eucaliptos e Investigador, Director del Arboreto de Currency Creek, la coleccion mas completa y biodiversa de eucaliptos del mundo y Annett Boerner del Instituto Max Planck de Biogeoquimica visitan los bosques altos humedos mixtos de eucalipto del Norte de España y Portugal / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

The five days with Gustavo were at times chaotic (in a Spanish sort of way!) but highly productive. We recorded over 40 different eucalypt species, including a number of species which are either naturally rare or poorly known in cultivation in Australia. But the highlights were the tall eucalypts, including:

1) The opportunistic find, following on from earlier field research on old Portuguese records by Gustavo & Californian eucalypt expert Matt Ritter, of a massive E. regnans (mountain ash) in Portugal measuring about 65 metres tall and 2.66 metres diameter at breast height;

2) Stands of E. globulus (Tasmanian blue gum) near Viveiro in Spain with trees at least 68 metres tall, and including the ‘Grandfather Tree’;

3) The Vale de Canas near Coimbra in Portugal where, despite being devastated by fire a couple of years ago, there were several eucalypt species greater than 65 metres tall, including the ‘Karri Knight’, a lone Eucalyptus diversicolor (karri) in a forest of other eucalypt species.

Using a laser hypsometer, we made about 50 measurements of the ‘Karri Knight’, using different methods and from different positions. A height of 72 metres (accurate to within 0.5 m) was established, making this tree the tallest measured tree in Europe west of the Caucasus Mountains.

Interestingly, immediately adjacent to the Karri Knight was a planted Araucaria bidwillii (Bunya pine), with a height of 50 metres, making it taller than any measured indigenous Bunya pines from Queensland, Australia.

So it now appears that the tallest measured tree in each of Australia, Europe and Africa are eucalypts (and each a different species – E. regnans, E. diversicolor and E. saligna respectively). Tall-tree height data are virtually unknown in South America, and are poorly verified in Asia proper, so it remains to be seen if we can add eucalypts as tallest trees for these continents also.


Australia's National Big Tree Register established

On a more local level, a National Register of Big Trees in Australia has recently been established by Derek McIntosh of Sydney (see http://nationalregisterofbigtrees.com.au/). While this web-based database aims to document ‘big’ rather than just tall trees, many of Australia’s tallest trees can be found listed on the database. With the aid of the laser hypsometer that Derek has kindly lent me, I have nominated and measured many big and tall trees; however, as the project is in its infancy, there is still a paucity of data in many regions and for many species. In particular, there are very few data on tall trees in Queensland and the Northern Territory.

I would be most pleased to receive any nominations of potentially big or tall trees (for any species), which I would endeavour to measure and document, with due acknowledgment to the nominator. If you know of a tree that potentially is taller than those already listed, drop me an email at Currency Creek.


And who is that guy?

Australian Eucalyptus botanist Dr Dean Nicolle in his conference on eucalypt biodiversity and the Currency Creek Arboretum, Lourizan Forestry Research Centre, Pontevedra, Spain / El botanico de eucaliptos Dr Dean Nicolle imparte una conferencia sobre la biodiversidad de los eucaliptos y sobre el Arboreto de Currency Creek, el repositorio genetico mas completo de eucaliptos del mundo, en el Centro de Investigaciones Forestales de Lourizan, Pontevedra, España / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo
Dr. Dean Nicolle, "El Cazador de Eucaliptos", has discovered or co-discovered +50 new eucalypt taxa in Australia, helping the known eucalypt biodiversity threshold surpass 1000 taxa. He is the Director of Currency Creek Eucalypt Research Arboretum, the most complete eucalypt collection and genetic repository in the world, with +90% of those taxa represented and cultivated for scientific purposes. He has collected and preserved +5000 eucalypt genetic lines, many of them endangered species or subspecies, some facing extinction risks. He is author or co-author of +50 scientific articles on eucalypt botany, and his work has made +40 extra articles by several international scientific research groups possible. Arborist and ecologist, his remarkable eucalypt tree inventory surpasses +9000 specimens, and from it, +4000 technical reports on remarkable eucalypts have been produced, including +150 new additions to the Australian Giant Tree National Register.

CRC - Cooperative Research Centre for Forestry - An Australian Research and Development Consortium formed by CSIRO, Department of Sustainability and Environment (Victoria), Forest and Wood Products Australia Limited, Forestry Tasmania, Forests and Forest Industry Council of Tasmania, Gunns Ltd, Hansol P I Pty Ltd, Murdoch University, Oji Paper Company Limited, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Southern Cross University, University of Melbourne Forest Science, University of Tasmania School of Plant Science, WA Plantation Resource Ltd, Australian Forest Contractors Association, Australian National University, Department of Economic Development (Tasmania), Forest Enterprises Australia Ltd, Forest Practices Authority (Tasmania), Forest Products Commission Western Australia, Forestry SA, Hancock Victorian Plantations Pty Ltd, Integrated Tree Cropping Limited, Midway Limited, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Norske Skog Paper Mills (Australia) Ltd, PIRSA Forestry, Southern Tree Breeding Association, Timberlands Pacific Pty Ltd, University of the Sunshine Coast, VicForests
Dean Nicolle's ongoing research is also part of the collaborative efforts of the Cooperative Research Center for Forestry, an Australian national research consortium with headquarters in Hobart, Tasmania. The CRC Research Programme Four: "Trees in the Landscape", coordinated by Prof. Dr. Bradley Potts, one of the world leading eucalypt geneticists & recipient of the Royal Society's Clarke Medal, has one of its focus on Biodiversity, including the monitoring and management of biodiversity in forest landscapes and eucalypt gene pool management. Latest news about research results by this multidisciplinary scientific team can be read at its BioBuzz Newsletter.


Chasing Giants: Images from the Giant Eucalyptus Tree Trek in Spain & Portugal

Spanish forester Miguel Angel Cogolludo, Australian botanist Dr Dean Nicolle, German ecologist Annett Boerner, Portuguese chemical engineer Paulo Ferreira and Spanish Forester Gustavo Iglesias identify and measure the Karri Knight, Giant Eucalyptus diversicolor of Portugal, tallest Tree in Europe / El ingeniero de Montes español Miguel Angel Cogolludo, el botanico australiano Dr Dean Nicolle, la ecofisiologa alemana Annett Boerner, el ingeniero quimico portugues Dr. Paulo Ferreira y el forestal español Gustavo Iglesias identifican y miden al Karri Knight, Eucalyptus diversicolor gigante, candidato al arbol mas alto de Europa / Karri Knight, reusachtige Eucalyptus diversicolor boom van Portugal, de hoogste boom in Europa / Karri Knight jättiläinen Eucalyptus diversicolor puu Portugalin korkein puu Euroopassa / Karri Knight Eucalyptus diversicolor arbre géant du Portugal, plus grand arbre en Europe / Karri Knight Eucalyptus diversicolor Baumriesen von Portugal, höchste Baum in Europa / ポルトガルは、ヨーロッパで最も高い木のカリーナイト巨大ユーカリdiversicolorツリー / Кари рыцарь гигантский эвкалипт diversicolor дерева Португалии, высокое дерево в Европе / 卡里骑士巨桉葡萄牙,欧洲最高的树树九孔 / Karri Knight diversicolor cây bạch đàn khổng lồ của Bồ Đào Nha, cây cao nhất tại châu Âu / Karri Knight jätte Eucalyptus diversicolor träd i Portugal, högsta träd i Europa / O Karri Knight arvore de eucalipto diversicolor de Portugal, a árvore mais alta na Europa / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

Figure 1. The white & brown-trunked tree at the Vale de Canas near Coimbra in Portugal is the tallest measured tree in Europe – a Eucalyptus diversicolor (karri) known as “Karri Knight”, with a height of 72 metres measured using a laser hypsometer. Immediately adjacent is a tall Araucaria bidwillii (Bunya pine) with a height of 50 metres. Surrounding these trees are other tall specimens of E. viminalis, E. globulus, E. obliqua and E. regnans, representatives of each measuring over 60 metres tall. All these species are naturally indigenous to Australia but have been grown in Europe for over 150 years.

Spanish forester Miguel Angel Cogolludo, Australian botanist Dr Dean Nicolle, German ecologist Annett Boerner, Portuguese chemical engineer Paulo Ferreira and Spanish Forester Gustavo Iglesias identify and measure the Karri Knight, Giant Eucalyptus diversicolor of Portugal, tallest Tree in Europe / El ingeniero de Montes español Miguel Angel Cogolludo, el botanico australiano Dr Dean Nicolle, la ecofisiologa alemana Annett Boerner, el ingeniero quimico portugues Dr. Paulo Ferreira y el forestal español Gustavo Iglesias identifican y miden al Karri Knight, Eucalyptus diversicolor gigante, candidato al arbol mas alto de Europa / Karri Knight, reusachtige Eucalyptus diversicolor boom van Portugal, de hoogste boom in Europa / Karri Knight jättiläinen Eucalyptus diversicolor puu Portugalin korkein puu Euroopassa / Karri Knight Eucalyptus diversicolor arbre géant du Portugal, plus grand arbre en Europe / Karri Knight Eucalyptus diversicolor Baumriesen von Portugal, höchste Baum in Europa / ポルトガルは、ヨーロッパで最も高い木のカリーナイト巨大ユーカリdiversicolorツリー / Кари рыцарь гигантский эвкалипт diversicolor дерева Португалии, высокое дерево в Европе / 卡里骑士巨桉葡萄牙,欧洲最高的树树九孔 / Karri Knight diversicolor cây bạch đàn khổng lồ của Bồ Đào Nha, cây cao nhất tại châu Âu / Karri Knight jätte Eucalyptus diversicolor träd i Portugal, högsta träd i Europa / O Karri Knight arvore de eucalipto diversicolor de Portugal, a árvore mais alta na Europa / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

Figure 2. The measurement team are (left to right) Paulo Ferreira (University of Coimbra, Portugal), Gustavo Iglesias (GIT Forestry, Spain), Dean Nicolle (Currency Creek Arboretum for Eucalypt Research, Australia), Annett Börner (Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany), Yolanda Fernández (Ence - SilvaSur, Spain) & Miguel Ángel Cogolludo (Ence - NorFor, Spain).

Spanish forester Miguel Angel Cogolludo, Australian botanist Dr Dean Nicolle, German ecologist Annett Boerner, Portuguese chemical engineer Paulo Ferreira and Spanish Forester Gustavo Iglesias identify and measure the Karri Knight, Giant Eucalyptus diversicolor of Portugal, tallest Tree in Europe / El ingeniero de Montes español Miguel Angel Cogolludo, el botanico australiano Dr Dean Nicolle, la ecofisiologa alemana Annett Boerner, el ingeniero quimico portugues Dr. Paulo Ferreira y el forestal español Gustavo Iglesias identifican y miden al Karri Knight, Eucalyptus diversicolor gigante, candidato al arbol mas alto de Europa / Karri Knight, reusachtige Eucalyptus diversicolor boom van Portugal, de hoogste boom in Europa / Karri Knight jättiläinen Eucalyptus diversicolor puu Portugalin korkein puu Euroopassa / Karri Knight Eucalyptus diversicolor arbre géant du Portugal, plus grand arbre en Europe / Karri Knight Eucalyptus diversicolor Baumriesen von Portugal, höchste Baum in Europa / ポルトガルは、ヨーロッパで最も高い木のカリーナイト巨大ユーカリdiversicolorツリー / Кари рыцарь гигантский эвкалипт diversicolor дерева Португалии, высокое дерево в Европе / 卡里骑士巨桉葡萄牙,欧洲最高的树树九孔 / Karri Knight diversicolor cây bạch đàn khổng lồ của Bồ Đào Nha, cây cao nhất tại châu Âu / Karri Knight jätte Eucalyptus diversicolor träd i Portugal, högsta träd i Europa / O Karri Knight arvore de eucalipto diversicolor de Portugal, a árvore mais alta na Europa / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting SL, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

Figure 3. Our Spanish Eucalyptologist (gum nut) colleague and local guide Gustavo Iglesias relaxes at the base of the 72 m tall karri, tallest standing measured tree in Europe. The small diameter of the tree relative to its height, is indicative of its relative youth (about 120 years old).


Australian eucalypt botanist Dr Dean Nicolle and Spanish forester Gustavo Iglesias identify outstanding tall trees in the mixed wet tall eucalypt forest of Vale de Canas, Coimbra, Portugal, some of the tallest trees in Europe / El botanico de eucaliptos australiano Dr Dean Nicolle y el forestal español Gustavo Iglesias identifican eucaliptos gigantes sobresalienntes en el bosque mixto humedo de eucalipto del Vale de Canas, Coimbra, Portugal, algunos de los arboles mas altos de Europa / Australian eucalypt kasvitieteilijä tri Dean Nicolle ja Espanjan metsänhoitaja Gustavo Iglesias tunnistaa jäljellä korkeita puita on sekoitettu märkä pitkä eucalypt metsä Vale de Canas, Coimbra, Portugali, jotkut korkein puiden Euroopassa / Australian Eukalyptus Botaniker Dr. Dean Nicolle und Spanisch Förster Gustavo Iglesias identifizieren herausragenden hohen Bäumen in der gemischten nass groß Eukalyptus Wald von Vale de Canas, Coimbra, Portugal, einige der höchsten Bäume in Europa / オーストラリアのユーカリの植物博士ディーンニコール、スペインフォレスターて、Gustavo Iglesiasさんは、ヨーロッパでベールデカナス、Coimbra、ポルトガル、高い木のいくつかの混合湿式背の高いユーカリの森に優れた背の高い木を識別する / 호주의 유칼립투스 식물학 박사 딘 Nicolle, 스페인어 산림 구스타보 니아 이글 레시아스는 유럽에서 베일 드 Canas, 코임브라, 포르투갈, 가장 높은 나무의 일부 혼합 서부 유럽 표준시 키가 유칼립투스 숲에 뛰어난 키가 큰 나무를 식별 / Австралийский эвкалипт ботаник д-р Дин Николь и испанском языках лесника Густаво Иглесиас выявления нерешенных высоких деревьев в смешанных мокрой высокий лес из эвкалиптов Вале-де-Канас, Коимбра, Португалия, некоторые из самых высоких деревьев в Европе / Australiska eucalypt botanist Dr Dean Nicolle och spanska skogvaktare Gustavo Iglesias identifiera enastående höga träd i blandade våta höga eucalypt skog av Vale de Canas, Coimbra, Portugal, några av de högsta träden i Europa / Tiến sĩ thực vật học người Úc bạch đàn Dean Nicolle và Forester Gustavo Tây Ban Nha Iglesias xác định cây xuất sắc cao trong rừng bạch đàn ẩm ướt hỗn hợp cao của Vale de Canas, Coimbra, Bồ Đào Nha, một số các cây cao nhất châu Âu / 澳大利亚桉树植物学博士院长尼科尔和西班牙文林务古斯塔沃西亚斯确定在混合湿谷德卡尼亚斯,科英布拉,葡萄牙,最高的树高大的桉树林在一些欧洲优秀的高大树木 / Botânico australiano de eucaliptos Dr. Dean Nicolle e engenheiro florestal espanhol forester Gustavo Iglesias identificam altas árvores da floresta de eucalipto mista humida de Vale de Canas, Coimbra, Portugal, fogar algumas das árvores mais altas da Europa / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting SL, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

Figure 4. Dean Nicolle and Gustavo Iglesias identify other potentially tall trees in the Vale de Canas near Coimbra in Portugal. (Photo courtesy Annett Börner - Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry)

Australian eucalypt botanist Dr. Dean Nicolle and German Max Planck Institute geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner measure and record height and diameter of King Regnans, Giant Eucalyptus regnans in Central Portugal, probably the tallest Mountain Ash of the Northern Hemisphere, and possibly the tallest Eucalyptus regnans out of Australia / El botanico de eucaliptos Dr Dean Nicolle y la geoecologa alemana Dr Annett Boerner de la Sociedad Max Planck para el Avance de la Ciencia miden y catalogan al King Regnans, Eucalyptus regnans Gigante de Portugal, probablemente el eucalipto regnans mas alto del Hemisferio Norte y posiblemente el mas alto fuera de Australia / 澳大利亚桉树植物学博士院长尼科尔和德国马克斯普朗克研究所geoecologist博士阿内特Boerner测量和记录的高度和国王Regnans,巨桉中环葡萄牙regnans,最高的山灰可能是在北半球,也可能是最高的桉树regnans外径澳大利亚 / Australische eucalyptus botanicus Dr Dean Nicolle en Duitse Max Planck Instituut geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner meten en registreren van hoogte en diameter van King Regnans, Giant Eucalyptus regnans in Midden-Portugal, waarschijnlijk de hoogste Mountain Ash van het noordelijk halfrond, en eventueel de hoogste Eucalyptus regnans uit van Australië / Australian eucalypt kasvitieteilijä tri Dean Nicolle ja saksalainen Max Planck-instituutin geoecologist tohtori Annett Boerner mitata ja tallentaa korkeus ja halkaisija King Regnans, Giant Eukalyptus regnans Keski-Portugalissa, todennäköisesti korkein Mountain Ash pohjoisen pallonpuoliskon, ja mahdollisesti korkein Eucalyptus regnans ulos Australian / Australian Eukalyptus Botaniker Dr. Dean Nicolle und deutschen Max-Planck-Institut Geoökologe Dr. Annett Börner messen und aufzeichnen Höhe und Durchmesser des Königs Regnans, Giant Eucalyptus regnans in Zentral-Portugal, wahrscheinlich der größte Mountain Ash von der nördlichen Hemisphäre, und möglicherweise die höchste Eucalyptus regnans aus Australiens / オーストラリアのユーカリの植物博士ディーンニコールとドイツのマックスプランク研究所のgeoecologist博士アネットボアーナーメジャー記録の高さと直径キングレジャン中央ポルトガルの巨大ユーカリレジャン、北半球の、おそらく最も高いマウンテンアッシュ、そしておそらく最も高いユーカリレジャンのうちオーストラリア / 호주의 유칼립투스 식물학 박사 딘 Nicolle, 독일 맥스 플랑크 연구소 geoecologist 닥터 아네트 Boerner 측정 및 기록의 높이와 직경 킹 Regnans, 중앙 포르투갈 거대한 유칼립투스 regnans, 북반구의 아마 가장 높은 산악 애쉬, 그리고 아마도 가장 높은 유칼립투스 regnans 중에 호주 / Австралийский эвкалипт ботаник доктор Дин Николь и немецкого Института Макса Планка geoecologist доктора Аннетт Боернер меры и рекордная высота и диаметр короля Регнанс, гигантский эвкалипт Регнанс в Центральной Португалии, вероятно, самая высокая гора Аш в северном полушарии, и, возможно, самая высокая из эвкалипта Регнанс Австралии / Australiska eucalypt botanist Dr Dean Nicolle och tyska Max Planck-institutet geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner mäta och registrera höjd och diameter på King Regnans, Giant Eucalyptus Regnans i centrala Portugal, troligen det högsta berget Ash på norra halvklotet, och möjligen den högsta Regnans Eucalyptus ut i Australien / Avustralya eucalypt botanikçi Dr Dean Nicolle ve Alman Max Planck Enstitüsü geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner ölçmek ve kayıt çap ve boy Kral Regnans, Orta Portekiz'de Dev okaliptüs regnans, Kuzey Yarımküre muhtemelen uzun Mountain Ash ve muhtemelen uzun Okaliptüs regnans dışında Avustralya / O botânico australiano dos eucaiptos Dr. Dean Nicolle e a geoecologista do alemão Max Planck Institute Dr Annett  Boerner registram medida da altura e diâmetro do Rei Regnans, Eucalyptus regnans  no centro de Portugal, provavelmente a mais alta arvore da sua classe do Hemisfério Norte e, possivelmente, a mais alta Eucalyptus regnans fora da Austrália / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting SL, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

Figure 5. Dean Nicolle appears gnome-like when standing near the giant “King Regnans” tree at Bussaco in Portugal. The “King Regnans”, a Eucalyptus regnans named as such following its serendipitous re-discovery by Gustavo Iglesias on this field trip, is 64.5 (+/- 1) metres tall. Near it, the tallest of the twin redwoods in the background (also exotic to the region) is 52 metres tall.

Australian eucalypt botanist Dr. Dean Nicolle and German Max Planck Institute geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner measure and record height and diameter of King Regnans, Giant Eucalyptus regnans in Central Portugal, probably the tallest Mountain Ash of the Northern Hemisphere, and possibly the tallest Eucalyptus regnans out of Australia / El botanico de eucaliptos Dr Dean Nicolle y la geoecologa alemana Dr Annett Boerner de la Sociedad Max Planck para el Avance de la Ciencia miden y catalogan al King Regnans, Eucalyptus regnans Gigante de Portugal, probablemente el eucalipto regnans mas alto del Hemisferio Norte y posiblemente el mas alto fuera de Australia / 澳大利亚桉树植物学博士院长尼科尔和德国马克斯普朗克研究所geoecologist博士阿内特Boerner测量和记录的高度和国王Regnans,巨桉中环葡萄牙regnans,最高的山灰可能是在北半球,也可能是最高的桉树regnans外径澳大利亚 / Australische eucalyptus botanicus Dr Dean Nicolle en Duitse Max Planck Instituut geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner meten en registreren van hoogte en diameter van King Regnans, Giant Eucalyptus regnans in Midden-Portugal, waarschijnlijk de hoogste Mountain Ash van het noordelijk halfrond, en eventueel de hoogste Eucalyptus regnans uit van Australië / Australian eucalypt kasvitieteilijä tri Dean Nicolle ja saksalainen Max Planck-instituutin geoecologist tohtori Annett Boerner mitata ja tallentaa korkeus ja halkaisija King Regnans, Giant Eukalyptus regnans Keski-Portugalissa, todennäköisesti korkein Mountain Ash pohjoisen pallonpuoliskon, ja mahdollisesti korkein Eucalyptus regnans ulos Australian / Australian Eukalyptus Botaniker Dr. Dean Nicolle und deutschen Max-Planck-Institut Geoökologe Dr. Annett Börner messen und aufzeichnen Höhe und Durchmesser des Königs Regnans, Giant Eucalyptus regnans in Zentral-Portugal, wahrscheinlich der größte Mountain Ash von der nördlichen Hemisphäre, und möglicherweise die höchste Eucalyptus regnans aus Australiens / オーストラリアのユーカリの植物博士ディーンニコールとドイツのマックスプランク研究所のgeoecologist博士アネットボアーナーメジャー記録の高さと直径キングレジャン中央ポルトガルの巨大ユーカリレジャン、北半球の、おそらく最も高いマウンテンアッシュ、そしておそらく最も高いユーカリレジャンのうちオーストラリア / 호주의 유칼립투스 식물학 박사 딘 Nicolle, 독일 맥스 플랑크 연구소 geoecologist 닥터 아네트 Boerner 측정 및 기록의 높이와 직경 킹 Regnans, 중앙 포르투갈 거대한 유칼립투스 regnans, 북반구의 아마 가장 높은 산악 애쉬, 그리고 아마도 가장 높은 유칼립투스 regnans 중에 호주 / Австралийский эвкалипт ботаник доктор Дин Николь и немецкого Института Макса Планка geoecologist доктора Аннетт Боернер меры и рекордная высота и диаметр короля Регнанс, гигантский эвкалипт Регнанс в Центральной Португалии, вероятно, самая высокая гора Аш в северном полушарии, и, возможно, самая высокая из эвкалипта Регнанс Австралии / Australiska eucalypt botanist Dr Dean Nicolle och tyska Max Planck-institutet geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner mäta och registrera höjd och diameter på King Regnans, Giant Eucalyptus Regnans i centrala Portugal, troligen det högsta berget Ash på norra halvklotet, och möjligen den högsta Regnans Eucalyptus ut i Australien / Avustralya eucalypt botanikçi Dr Dean Nicolle ve Alman Max Planck Enstitüsü geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner ölçmek ve kayıt çap ve boy Kral Regnans, Orta Portekiz'de Dev okaliptüs regnans, Kuzey Yarımküre muhtemelen uzun Mountain Ash ve muhtemelen uzun Okaliptüs regnans dışında Avustralya / O botânico australiano dos eucaiptos Dr. Dean Nicolle e a geoecologista do alemão Max Planck Institute Dr Annett  Boerner registram medida da altura e diâmetro do Rei Regnans, Eucalyptus regnans  no centro de Portugal, provavelmente a mais alta arvore da sua classe do Hemisfério Norte e, possivelmente, a mais alta Eucalyptus regnans fora da Austrália / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting SL, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

Figure 6. Dean Nicolle and Annett Börner measure the diameter of the “King Regnans”. Diameter at breast height is 2.66 m. This tree had the greatest diameter of the eucalypts we measured in Spain and Portugal, but it is not the fattest one standing. Note the autumnal oak & maple leaves littering the ground at the base of the tree.


Australian eucalypt Botanist Dr Dean Nicolle and German geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner from the Max Planck Institute register and measure a Giant Yate tree, Eucalyptus cornuta, in Vilagarcia de Arousa, Galicia, probably the largest of its type in Europe / El botanico de eucaliptos australiano Dr Dean Nicolle y la geoecologa alemana Dr Annett Boerner de la Sociedad Max Planck para el avance de la Ciencia registran y miden un eucalipto Yate gigante, Eucalyptus cornuta, en Vilagarcia de Arousa, Galicia, probablemente el mas grande de su tipo en Europa / 澳大利亚桉树植物学博士和德国geoecologist院长尼科尔博士阿内特Boerner来自马克斯普朗克研究所和衡量一个巨人登记亚特树,桉树枸骨在Vilagarcia德Arousa,加利西亚,可能是其在欧洲最大的同类型, / Australian eucalypt kasvitieteilijä tri Dean Nicolle ja Saksan geoecologist tohtori Annett Boerner peräisin Max Planck-instituutin rekisteröityä ja mitata Giant Yate puu, Eucalyptus cornuta vuonna Vilagarcia de Arousa, Galicia, luultavasti suurin lajissaan Euroopassa / Australian Eukalyptus Botaniker Dr. Dean Nicolle und deutschen Geoökologe Dr. Annett Börner vom Max-Planck-Institut registrieren und messen Giant Yate Baum, Eucalyptus cornuta, in Vilagarcia de Arousa, Galicien, wahrscheinlich die größte ihrer Art in Europa / マックスプランク研究所から、オーストラリアのユーカリの植物学者博士ディーンニコールは、ドイツgeoecologist博士アネットボアーナーレジスタVilagarciaデArousa、ガリシア、おそらくヨーロッパでは、その型の最大の巨大ヤーテツリー、ユーカリコーナッタ、測定 / 맥스 플랑크 연구소에서 호주의 유칼립투스 식물학 박사 딘 Nicolle는 독일어 geoecologist 박사 아네트 Boerner 등록하고 Vilagarcia 드 Arousa, 갈리 시아, 아마 유럽에서 해당 유형의 최대 규모의 거대한 Yate 트리, 유칼립투스 cornuta, 측정 / Австралийский эвкалипт ботаник д-р Дин Николь и немецкий geoecologist Доктор Аннетт Бернер из Института Макса Планка зарегистрироваться и меры дерева Гигантские Йет, эвкалипта Корната, в Vilagarcia-де-Ароса, Галиции, вероятно, крупнейшим в своем роде в Европе / Australiska eucalypt Botanist Dr Dean Nicolle och tyska geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner från Max Planck-institutet registrera och mäta en Giant Yate träd, Eucalyptus cornuta, i Vilagarcia de Arousa, Galicia, förmodligen den största i sitt slag i Europa / Thực vật học người Úc bạch đàn và Tiến sĩ Dean Nicolle geoecologist Tiến sĩ Đức Annett Boerner từ Viện Max Planck đăng ký và đo lường một Giant Yate cây, cornuta bạch đàn, trong Vilagarcia de Arousa, Galicia, có lẽ là lớn nhất của loại hình của nó ở châu Âu / O botânico australiano de eucaliptos Dr. Dean Nicolle e geoecologa alemã Dr Annett Boerner do Instituto Max Planck a registrar e medir uma árvore gigante Yate, Eucalyptus cornuta, em Vilagarcia de Arousa, na Galiza, provavelmente o maior de seu tipo na Europa / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting SL, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo
Figure 7. Dean Nicolle & Annett Börner measuring twin Eucalyptus cornuta (yate) trees on the Vilagarcía de Arousa foreshore in Galicia, Spain. (Height, 31.5 metres; diameter at breast height, 1.24 metres.) This species is native to south-western Western Australia, where it rarely reaches such proportions. This public park also contained a number of other eucalypt species including Corymbia calophylla (marri), C. variegata (northern spotted gum), E. amplifolia (cabbage gum), E. melliodora (yellow box), E. rudis (flooded gum) and E. tenuramis (silver peppermint).


Australian Eucalyptus botanist Dr Dean Nicolle, Spanish forester Gustavo Iglesias and German geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner from the Max Planck Institute visit, measure and register Grandpa, the Giant Eucalyptus globulus of Spain, in the wet rainforest of Galicia, near Viveiro / El botanico australiano de eucaliptos Dr Dean Nicolle, el forestal español Gustavo Iglesias y la geoecologa alemana Dr Annett Boerner del Instituto Max Planck para el Avance de la Ciencia visitan, registran y miden a El Abuelo de Chavin, Eucalyptus globulus Gigante de España, en el bosque lluvioso de Galicia cerca de Viveiro / 澳大利亚桉树植物学博士院长尼科尔,西班牙和德国的森林人古斯塔沃亚斯博士阿内特Boerner geoecologist从马克斯普朗克研究所的访问,测量和登记册在加利西亚潮湿热带雨林爷爷,巨桉桉西班牙,近Viveiro的 / Australische Eucalyptus botanicus Dr Dean Nicolle, Spaanse boswachter Gustavo Iglesias en Duitse geoecologist dr. Anne Boer van het Max Planck Instituut te bezoeken, meten en registreren Opa, de Giant Eucalyptus globulus van Spanje, in de natte regenwoud van Galicië, in de buurt Viveiro / Australian Eukalyptus kasvitieteilijä tri Dean Nicolle, espanja metsänhoitaja Gustavo Iglesias ja Saksan geoecologist tohtori Annett Boerner peräisin Max Planck-instituutin vierailu, mitata ja rekisteröidä isoisä, Giant Eucalyptus globulus Espanjan märässä sademetsien Galician lähellä Viveiro / Australian Eucalyptus Botaniker Dr. Dean Nicolle, Spanisch Förster Gustavo Iglesias und die deutsche Geoökologe Dr. Annett Börner vom Max-Planck-Institut besuchen, zu messen und registrieren Opa, der Riese Eucalyptus globulus von Spanien, in den feuchten Regenwald von Galizien, in der Nähe von Viveiro / オーストラリアのユーカリの植物学者博士ディーンニコールは、マックスプランク研究所を訪問、メジャーからのスペイン語フォレスターて、Gustavoイグレシアス、ドイツgeoecologist博士アネットボアーナーとViveiroの近くに、ガリシアのウェットの熱帯雨林でおじいちゃん、スペインの巨大なユーカリグロブラス、レジスタ / 호주의 유칼립투스 식물학 박사 딘 Nicolle는 맥스 플랑크 연구소를 방문, 법안에서 스페인어 산림 구스타보 니아 이글 레시아스와 독일 geoecologist 박사 아네트 Boerner과 Viveiro 근처 갈리 시아의 젖은 열대우림 할아버지를, 스페인의 거대한 유칼립투스 globulus 등록 / Австралийский Эвкалипт ботаник д-р Дин Николь, испанский лесника Густаво Иглесиас и немецкая geoecologist Доктор Аннетт Бернер из Института Макса Планка визита, измерять и регистрировать дедушка, Гигантский эвкалипт globulus Испании, в мокрый лес Галиции, возле Viveiro / Australiska Eucalyptus botanist Dr Dean Nicolle, spanska skogvaktare Gustavo Iglesias och tyska geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner från Max Planck-institutet besök, mäta och registrera morfar, Giant Eucalyptus globulus Spanien i den våta regnskogen i Galicien, i närheten av Viveiro / Tiến sĩ thực vật học người Úc bạch đàn Dean Nicolle, Forester Gustavo Tây Ban Nha Iglesias và geoecologist Tiến sĩ Đức Annett Boerner từ Viện Max Planck đo, hãy truy cập và đăng ký ông ngoại, Eucalyptus globulus khổng lồ của Tây Ban Nha, trong các rừng nhiệt đới ẩm ướt của Galicia, gần Viveiro / O botânico australiano de Eucalyptus Dr. Dean Nicolle, o engenheiro florestal espanhol forester Gustavo Iglesias e a geoecologa Dr Annett Boerner do alemao Instituto Max Planck para o Avance da Ciencia, visitam, midem e regitram O Vovô, Eucalypt globulus Gigante de Espanha, na floresta tropical úmida da Galiza, perto do Viveiro  / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting SL, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

Figure 8. “El Abuelo” (“Grandfather Tree”), a 65 metre-tall Eucalyptus globulus adjacent to El Landro (river), near Viveiro in Galicia, Spain. Certainly the most famous eucalypt in Spain, where it grows in a forest of younger trees of the same species, some of which are taller. European indigenous trees as Abies (fir) and Quercus (oak) were observed growing under the towering eucalypts.


Australian eucalypt botanist Dr Dean Nicolle and German geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner from the Max Planck Institute for the Advancement of Science visit with Spanish forester Gustavo Iglesias the grounds of Lourizan Forestry Research Centre in Pontevedra, Galicia, Spain to measure and register Giant Eucalyptus / El botanico australiano de eucaliptos Dr Dean Nicole y la geoecologa alemana Dr Annett Boerner del Instituto Max Planck para el Avance de la Ciencia visitan con el forestal español Gustavo Iglesias las colecciones del Centro de Investigaciones Forestales de Lourizan, Pontevedra, Galicia, para medir y registrar Eucalyptus Gigantes / 澳大利亚桉树植物学博士院长尼科尔和马克斯普朗克研究所的科学进步访问德国geoecologist博士阿内特Boerner福雷斯特古斯塔沃亚斯与西班牙的Lourizan林业研究中心在Pontevedra,加利西亚,西班牙的理由来衡量和登记巨桉 / Australische eucalyptus botanicus Dr Dean Nicolle en Duitse geoecologist dr. Anne Boer van het Max Planck Instituut voor de Bevordering van de Wetenschap een bezoek met de Spaanse boswachter Gustavo Iglesias grond van Lourizan Bosbouw Centrum voor Onderzoek in Pontevedra, Galicië, Spanje te meten en te registreren Giant Eucalyptus / Australie eucalyptus botaniste Dr Dean Nicolle et allemand geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner de l'Institut Max Planck pour l'avancement des sciences de la visite avec l'espagnol Gustavo Iglesias forestier en raison de Lourizan Centre de foresterie de recherche à Pontevedra, en Galice, en Espagne afin de mesurer et d'enregistrer Giant Eucalyptus / Australian Eukalyptus Botaniker Dr. Dean Nicolle und deutschen Geoökologe Dr. Annett Börner vom Max-Planck-Institut für die Förderung der Wissenschaft Besuch mit spanischen Förster Gustavo Iglesias aus Gründen der Lourizán Forstwirtschaft Forschungsstelle in Pontevedra, Galicien, Spanien zu messen und zu registrieren Giant Eucalyptus / スペインフォレスターて、Gustavo Iglesiasさんと科学の訪問の進歩のためのマックスプランク研究所からオーストラリアのユーカリの植物博士ディーンニコールは、ドイツgeoecologist博士アネットボアーナーポンテベドラ、ガリシア、スペインLourizan林業研究センターの敷地を測定し、巨大なユーカリを登録する / 스페인어 산림 구스타보 니아 이글 레시아스와 과학 방문의 발전​​을위한 맥스 플랑크 연구소에서 호주의 유칼립투스 식물학 박사 딘 Nicolle는 독일어 geoecologist 박사 아네트 Boerner 폰테 베 드라, 갈리 시아, 스페인 Lourizan 임업 연구 센터의 부지는 측정하고 거대한 유칼립투스를 등록 / Австралийский эвкалипт ботаник д-р Дин Николь и немецкий geoecologist Доктор Аннетт Бернер из Института Макса Планка по улучшению визита науки с испанским лесника Густаво Иглесиас основании Lourizan лесной научно-исследовательский центр в Понтеведра, Галисия, Испания для измерения и регистрации Гигантский эвкалипт / Australiska eucalypt botanist Dr Dean Nicolle och tyska geoecologist Dr Annett Boerner från Max Planck-institutet för att främja vetenskap besök med spanska skogvaktare Gustavo Iglesias grund av Lourizan Forestry Research Centre i Pontevedra, Galicien, Spanien för att mäta och registrera Giant Eucalyptus / Thực vật học người Úc bạch đàn và Tiến sĩ Dean Nicolle geoecologist Tiến sĩ Đức Annett Boerner từ Viện Max Planck cho sự tiến bộ của khoa học Tây Ban Nha thăm lính kiểm lâm Gustavo Iglesias các căn cứ của Trung tâm Nghiên cứu Lâm nghiệp Lourizan tại Pontevedra, Galicia, Tây Ban Nha để đánh giá và đăng ký Giant bạch đàn / O botânico australiano de eucaliptos Dr. Dean Nicolle e a geoecologa Dr Annett Boerner do alemão Instituto Max Planck para o Avanço da Ciência visitam com o espanhol Gustavo Iglesias forester o Centro de Investigacioes Florestais de Lourizan, em Pontevedra, Galiza, Espanha, para medir e registrar eucaliptos gigantes / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting SL, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

Figure 9. A typical forest-grown Eucalyptus viminalis in Pontevedra, Spain. Rapid growth rates and branch-free cylindrical trunks are typical of plantation eucalypts in Spain and Portugal.


Meet "King Regnans del Sur": The Centurion



Watch Nick Duigan & Andrew Hart "Going Bush" beyond the Tahune Airwalk to meet the tallest known standing true flowering plant in the World... amidst the tall wet eucalypt forests of Tasmania... and show you dendrologists Tom Greenwood & Brett Mifsud preparing for a Giant Tree Climb: the ascent to and measurement of The Centurion, the tallest known standing eucalypt at 99.6 meters height, discovered by Forestry Tasmania's forester David Mannes back in 2008... Eucalyptus regnans, King of Eucalypt Trees! (Click play to watch the video, courtesy of Forestry Tasmania)

video

(click to play)
King Regnans: Sir David Attenborough's Giant Eucalyptus (video courtesy of BBC)


Also at EUCALYPTOLOGICS...


Climbing the tallest trees in Africa: Twin Giants of Magoebaskloof, Giant Eucalyptus saligna at Woodbush Forest Reserve & Benvie Giant, Eucalyptus regnans at Benvie Farm Arboretum, South Africa / Escalando el arbol mas alto de Africa: Los Gigantes Gemelos de Magoebaskloof, Eucaliptos saligna gigantes en la Reserva Forestal de Woodbush & Gigante de Benvie, Eucalipto regnans en el Arboreto de Benvie, Sudáfica/ by Izak van der Merwe / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Lugo, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo



Tallest tree in Africa: Giant Eucalyptus saligna at Woodbush Forest Reserve, South Africa / El arbol mas alto de Africa: Eucalipto saligna gigante en la Reserva Forestal de Woodbush, Sudafrica / by Izak van der Merwe / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Lugo, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo



Cal Poly Plant Conservatory / Climbing the Giant Karri Eucalyptus diversicolor, tallest Eucalyptus diversicolor in America, discovered by Matt Ritter at Brizzolara Creek, Cal Poly Canyon, San Luis Obispo, California, USA / Escalando ejemplar gigante de Eucalipto Karri cazado por Matt Ritter en el rancho de Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, California / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Lugo, Galicia, España, Spain



Giant Eucalyptus trees in Spain and Portugal: Karri Knight & Grandpa / Eucaliptos gigantes de España y Portugal: Caballero Karri & El Abuelo de Chavín / / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo



Giant Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus in the Northern coast of Galicia, Spain / Ejemplar gigante de Eucalipto blanco en la costa norte de Galicia, España / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo


More Eucalyptus Giants around this site


Contact us / Subscribe to Eucalyptologics

Contact GIT Forestry Consulting / Contact Eucalyptologics / Contacto GIT Forestry Consulting / Contacto Eucalyptologics / Lugo, Galicia, Spain, España
Contact GIT Forestry Consulting - Eucalyptologics

EUCALYPTOLOGICS: GIT Forestry Consulting Eucalyptus Blog / Information Resources on Eucalyptus Cultivation Worldwide / Forestry Engineering, Eucalyptus Seed, Eucalyptus Plants, Eucalyptus Wood, Eucalyptus Honey, Eucalyptus Essential Oil, Eucalyptus Forests, Eucalyptus Plantations, Eucalyptus Timber, Eucalyptus Lumber, Eucalyptus Furniture, Eucalyptus Veneer, Eucalyptus Plywood, Eucalyptus MDF Board, Eucalyptus Cellulose, Eucalyptus Paper, Eucalyptus Biomass, Eucalyptus Energy, Eucalyptus Floristry, Eucalyptus Foliage, Eucalyptus Garden / Ingenieria Forestal, Semilla de eucalipto, Plantas de eucalipto, Madera de eucalipto, Miel de eucalipto, Aceite Esencial de eucalipto, Bosque de eucalipto, Plantacion de eucalipto, Muebles de eucalipto, Tablero de eucalipto, MDF de eucalipto, Celulosa de eucalipto, Papel de eucalipto, Biomasa de eucalipto, Energia de eucalipto, Ramillo Verde Ornamental de Eucalipto, Jardin de Eucalipto
GIT's Eucalyptology Topics

Subscribe to receive EUCALYPTOLOGICS via RSS

Subscribe to receive EUCALYPTOLOGICS via e-mail


© 2007-2011 Gustavo Iglesias Trabado. Please contact us if you want to use all or part of this text and photography elsewhere. We like to share, but we do not like rudeness.

5 Comments by our readers :::

Aula Silvicultura said...

Well Done Gustavo!
Well Done Dr. Nicolle!

Congratulation big-tree lovers.

Education Agent said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...

Pretty good post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I'll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon.



Education Consultants karachi

Boundless Technologies said...

I can see that you are putting a lot of time and effort into your blog and detailed articles! I am deeply in love with every single piece of information you post here





Boundless

web designer india said...

Thanks for post. It’s really informative stuff.
I really like to read.Hope to learn a lot and have a nice experience here! my best regards guys!


GIT's Eucalyptology Topics
Subscribe via RSS Subscribe via e-mail