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Eucalyptus International: global plants

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We start here a thread depicting Eucalyptus cultivation around the world. Some 200 years after their discovery eucalypts have become some of the most important travelling plants in human history, introduced in countries in all continents. Their importance as source of timber and non timber products, as landscape elements, as ornamental plants, is one of the outstanding contributions of Australia to the world.


Southern Australia
Eucalyptus in Australia: Essential oil at Emu Ridge, Kangaroo Island, Southern Australia / Eucalyptologics, on Sustainable Eucalyptus cultivation / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, Spain, España / Eucalyptologics: Recursos de Informacion sobre Cultivo Sostenible del Eucalipto en el Mundo
Saudi Arabia
Eucalyptus in Saudi Arabia: species trial / Eucalyptologics, on Sustainable Eucalyptus cultivation / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, Spain, España / Eucalyptologics: Recursos de Informacion sobre Cultivo Sostenible del Eucalipto en el Mundo
Arizona

Giant Eucalyptus camaldulensis, River Red Gum, at Boyce Thompson Arboretum, Sonora, Phoenix, Arizona, USA / Eucaliptos Rojos Gigantes del Arboreto Boyce Thompson, Sonora, Phoenix, Arizona, Estados Unidos / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, Roberto Carballeira Tenreiro and Javier Folgueira Lozano / GIT Forestry Consulting SL, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Lugo, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

Brazil
Harvesting Eucalyptus urograndis clones at FIBRIA Jacarei, Sao Paulo, Brazil / Cosecha de clones de Eucalyptus urograndis de FIBRIA en Jacarei, Sao Paulo, Brasil / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, Roberto Carballeira Tenreiro and Javier Folgueira Lozano / GIT Forestry Consulting SL, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Lugo, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

California
Cal Poly Plant Conservatory / Climbing Giant Karri Eucalyptus diversicolor discovered by Matt Ritter at Cal Poly Canyon, San Luis Obispo, California, USA / Escalando ejemplar gigante de Eucalipto Karri cazado por Matt Ritter en el rancho de Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, California / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Lugo, Galicia, España, Spain

Chile
INFOR / Instituto Forestal / Ministerio de Agricultura, Gobierno de Chile / INFOR forestry scientists lead by Juan Carlos Pinilla inspecting Eucalyptus globulus regrowth and productivity / Cientificos forestales chilenos liderados por Juan Carlos Pinilla inspeccionando rebrote de cepa y productividad en Eucalyptus globulus / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, Roberto Carballeira Tenreiro and Javier Folgueira Lozano / GIT Forestry Consulting SL, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Lugo, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

China
Eucalyptus in China: timber plantation / Eucalyptologics, on Sustainable Eucalyptus cultivation / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, Spain, España / Eucalyptologics: Recursos de Informacion sobre Cultivo Sostenible del Eucalipto en el Mundo
Denmark
Eucalyptus in Denmark: Ornamental Eucalyptus perriniana sourced by Eukalyptushaven.dk planted at Strøby Egede Botanical Garden, Copenhagen, Denmark, Danmark / Eucalyptologics, on Sustainable Eucalyptus cultivation / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, Spain, España / Eucalyptologics: Recursos de Informacion sobre Cultivo Sostenible del Eucalipto en el Mundo
India
Pragati Biotech clonal Eucalyptus polyculture as agroforestry system in India / Policultivo de clones de Eucalyptus en sistema agroforestal, Pragati Biotech, India / Eucalyptologics, on Sustainable Eucalyptus cultivation / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, Spain, España / Eucalyptologics: Recursos de Informacion sobre Cultivo Sostenible del Eucalipto en el Mundo
Netherlands
KOALA Eucalyptus Nursery, cold hardy Eucalyptus in the Netherlands / de Groene Prins exotic plant nursery, cold hardy Eucalyptus in the Netherlands / Eucalyptusfeest 2010 / GIT Forestry Consulting SL / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, Roberto Carballeira Tenreiro and Javier Folgueira Lozano / GIT Forestry Consulting SL, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Lugo, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo

Peru
Eucalyptus in Peru: Eucalyptus globulus windbreaks in an agroforestry landscape at Cajamarca, Northern Andes Range, Peru / Eucalipto en Perú: Cortavientos de Eucalyptus globulus en paisaje agroforestal (Cajamarca, Cordillera de los Andes, Perú) / Eucalyptologics, on Sustainable Eucalyptus cultivation / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, Spain, España / Eucalyptologics: Recursos de Informacion sobre Cultivo Sostenible del Eucalipto en el Mundo
Spain

GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo


Tasmania

Eucalyptus in Tasmania: Mount Field alpine Eucalyptus woodland botanising Field Trip with School of Plant Sciences, University of Tasmania (UTAS), Australia / Eucalyptologics, on Sustainable Eucalyptus cultivation / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, Spain, España / Eucalyptologics: Recursos de Informacion sobre Cultivo Sostenible del Eucalipto en el Mundo

Victoria

Plantation Eucalypts for High Value Timber 2007 Conference, a Woollybutt Initiative / Conferencia Plantaciones de Eucalipto para Madera de Alto Valor 2007, una iniciativa de Woollybutt / Jon Lambert / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo
Wales
Eucalyptus in Wales: In memoriam Andrew McConnell, eucalyptus nursery artist and master craftsman, Celyn Vale, Wales, UK / Eucalyptologics, on Sustainable Eucalyptus cultivation / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, Spain, España / Eucalyptologics: Recursos de Informacion sobre Cultivo Sostenible del Eucalipto en el Mundo
Acknowledgements

We will be adding here a list of contributing authors. We hope it grows!

Diron, F. (Eucalyptushaven.dk); ITG Services Ltd (Trek!Peru); Jordan, G. J. (UTAS); McConnell, A. (Celyn Vale); Lal, P. (Pragati Biotechnologies); Lambert, J. (Woollybutt Pty Ltd); Midgley, S. J. (CSIRO); Pinilla Suárez, J.C. (INFOR); Prins, H. (de Groene Prins); Ritter, M. (CalPoly); Rouw, M. (EucalyptusKwekerij Koala); Turnbull, J. W. (ACIAR); Turner, L. (Emu Ridge)...


Contribute to Eucalyptus International

Wherever you are, consider sharing your images with us to enlarge this thread depicting Eucalyptus cultivation around the world and help creating an international online gallery: Eucalyptus, the global plants. But please, not just trees. People, and trees. Simply contact us, and we will find the best way to receive your images to later add them to the thread.


Contact GIT Forestry Consulting / Contact Eucalyptologics / Contacto GIT Forestry Consulting / Contacto Eucalyptologics / Eucalyptologics, on Sustainable Eucalyptus cultivation / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, Spain, España / Eucalyptologics: Recursos de Informacion sobre Cultivo Sostenible del Eucalipto en el MundoContact GIT Forestry Consulting - Eucalyptologics

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Eucalyptus cultivated forests worldwide map 2008 / Eucalyptus cultivation map 2008 / Eucalypt forests in the world / Mapa de plantaciones de eucalipto en el mundo 2008 / Mapa de cultivo de eucalipto en el mundo / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado y Dennis Wilstermann / GIT Forestry Consulting - Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Lugo, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics - Information Resources on Eucalyptus Cultivation Around the World - Recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo
EUCALYPTOLOGICS brings you as part of our Global Resource Maps a visual summary of the key statistics for Eucalyptus based cultivated forests around the world. If you are in need for an answer to the question "how many planted hectares of Eucalyptus have been established?", be it at a global level or for a particular country, this resource is expected to be useful to you.

EUCALYPTOLOGICS: GIT Forestry Consulting Eucalyptus Blog / Information Resources on Eucalyptus Cultivation Worldwide / Forestry Engineering, Seed, Plants, Wood, Honey, Essential Oil, Forests, Plantations, Timber, Lumber, Furniture, Veneer, Plywood, MDF Board, Cellulose, Paper, Biomass, Energy, Floristry, Foliage, Garden / Ingenieria Forestal, Semilla, Plantas, Madera, Miel, Aceite Esencial, Bosque, Plantacion, Muebles, Tablero, MDF, Celulosa, Papel, Biomasa, Energia, Ramillo Verde Ornamental, Jardin /Eucalyptologics, on Sustainable Eucalyptus cultivation / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, Spain, España / Eucalyptologics: Recursos de Informacion sobre Cultivo Sostenible del Eucalipto en el MundoGIT's Eucalyptology Topics

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© 2007-2008 Gustavo Iglesias Trabado. Please contact us if you want to use all or part of this text and photography elsewhere. We like to share, and the other authors too, but we do not like rudeness.

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King Regnans: Attenborough's Giant Eucalyptus

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Sir David Attenborough has been travelling the world for the last 50 years to show us the wonders of nature in all its forms. There are so many amazing moments captured in film with him around that choosing just one is a though choice. But this is EUCALYPTOLOGICS, the Eucalyptus Blog, so the natural choice has to be witnessing a Giant among Giants showing us King Regnans. Enjoy the Mountain Ash in its old growth Australian forest habitat!


video

(click to play)
King Regnans Giant Eucalyptus video courtesy of BBC



Originally released by 1995, the Peabody Award Winner nature documentary The Private Life of Plants by the BBC is a striking trip around the world to unveil the secrets of plant evolution, adaptation and struggle for survival in this ever changing world we all have the priviledge to warden.

Attenborough's comments wisely blended with amazing photography and Richard Grassby-Lewis' musical companion make this piece of art a milestone in the divulgation of botany, biogeography, ecology and environmental science. And the 7 minute long piece on Eucalyptus is certainly worth watching. But do not forget the other 285 minutes!




Chasing... the Tallest Trees in Europe

Australian Botanist Dr Dean Nicolle, German Geoecologist Annett Boerner from the Max Planck Society and Spanish forester Gustavo Iglesias from GIT Forestry trek the coastal eucalypt rainforest of Spain and Portugal to measure and assess the tallest Eucalyptus trees in Europe / El botanico australiano Dr Dean Nicolle, la Geoecologa alemana Annett Boerner de la Sociedad Max Planck para el Avance de la Ciencia y el forestal Gustavo Iglesias de GIT Forestry exploran el bosque lluvioso costero de eucalipto de España y Portugal para medir y evaluar algunos de los arboles mas altos de Europa / Gustavo Iglesias Trabado, Roberto Carballeira Tenreiro and Javier Folgueira Lozano / GIT Forestry Consulting SL, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Lugo, Galicia, España, Spain / Eucalyptologics, information resources on Eucalyptus cultivation around the world / Eucalyptologics, recursos de informacion sobre el cultivo del eucalipto en el mundo



More Eucalyptus Giants around this site


EUCALYPTOLOGICS: GIT Forestry Consulting Eucalyptus Blog / Information Resources on Eucalyptus Cultivation Worldwide / Forestry Engineering, Eucalyptus Seed, Eucalyptus Plants, Eucalyptus Wood, Eucalyptus Honey, Eucalyptus Essential Oil, Eucalyptus Forests, Eucalyptus Plantations, Eucalyptus Timber, Eucalyptus Lumber, Eucalyptus Furniture, Eucalyptus Veneer, Eucalyptus Plywood, Eucalyptus MDF Board, Eucalyptus Cellulose, Eucalyptus Paper, Eucalyptus Biomass, Eucalyptus Energy, Eucalyptus Floristry, Eucalyptus Foliage, Eucalyptus Garden / Ingenieria Forestal, Semilla de eucalipto, Plantas de eucalipto, Madera de eucalipto, Miel de eucalipto, Aceite Esencial de eucalipto, Bosque de eucalipto, Plantacion de eucalipto, Muebles de eucalipto, Tablero de eucalipto, MDF de eucalipto, Celulosa de eucalipto, Papel de eucalipto, Biomasa de eucalipto, Energia de eucalipto, Ramillo Verde Ornamental de Eucalipto, Jardin de EucaliptoGIT's Eucalyptology Topics

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Eucalyptus paulistana: The Brazilian Giant

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Navarro de Andrade, the man who planted 24 million Eucalyptus trees... or more.

Gustavo Iglesias Trabado
Contact GIT Forestry Consulting
GIT Forestry Consulting - Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal - www.git-forestry.com - EUCALYPTOLOGICS


Horto Florestal de Rio Claro / Floresta Estadual Navarro de Andrade / Forestry Station at Rio Claro / Navarro de Andrade State Forest / Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil

"Go, without delay. Leave anything else you have to do. Nothing is more pressing because nothing is more precious for you to do during your trip to São Paulo but visiting the Forestry Station at Rio Claro. Anything else matters little. Here you will find what you cannot see anywhere else. Everything is unheard of, gigantic, majestic... If you want a boost to your pride of being Brazilian, but with a well deserved and fair pride, then go to Rio Claro. And when leaving the place, travel straight to Rio de Janeiro... There is nothing else of interest to see afterwards for whom got to know the wonderful work of a Brazilian whose name so few remember: Navarro de Andrade"

Excerpts of correspondence between writers Monteiro Lobato & Celestino Silveira (1945)


We have seen previously here in EUCALYPTOLOGICS examples of Eucalyptus Giants both in Europe and in Australia surviving as heritage trees, and followed the development of the Eucalyptus Atlantic rainforest in Europe from a botanical rarity to a major timber resource. But meanwhile all this was slowly happening, a major figure was to emerge from the rich soils of Brazil. Before him the industrial uses of the ubiquitous Australian trees overseas had known of the failure of Californian expectations. After him Eucalyptus forestry in America but also in the world would change forever. What he successfully started a hundred years ago was to be followed for decades by foresters and silviculturalists in four continents. He was o plantador de eucaliptos. The Eucalyptus planter. The man of A Paulista. Eucalyptus paulistana.


Edmundo Navarro de Andrade (1881-1941), the brief story of an Eucalyptus Giant


Armando Navarro Sampaio & Edmundo Navarro de Andrade / Eucalyptus Giants of Brazil / Brazilian Eucalypt Pioneers
1820's - First mentions on Eucalyptus being planted in Brazil as botanical rarity.

1897 - Navarro de Andrade sets foot on the School of Agronomy at Coimbra (Portugal), in the neighbourhood of the Karri Knight and the first sizeable Eucalyptus plantations in Europe.


Companhia Paulista de Estrdas de Ferro / Paulista Railways Company / Sao Paulo / Jundiai / Rio Claro / Industrial Eucalyptus Pioneers
1903
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Navarro de Andrade arrives back in Brazil. In some months he would be in charge of forestry experiments and silvicultural research for Paulista Railways at Jundiaí Forest Garden.

1906 - Navarro de Andrade completes the planting of 32000 eucalypts at Jundiaí to compare their growth and industrial potential for short cycle timber production against 8000 native Brazilian trees. Eucalyptus won.


Rio Claro Paulista Railway Station / Terminal de Rio Claro da Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro / Rio Claro / Sao Paulo / Brazil
1909
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Navarro de Andrade starts mass planting of industrial Eucalyptus crops at Río Claro to provide fuelwood, sleepers and poles for Paulista Railways. The experience on the 2200 ha of Rio Claro would spread on over 20 extra massive plantings along the main lines of this railroad in order to create a local supply of firewood/charcoal for steam locomotives.


Navarro de Andrade Eucalyptus nursery at Horto Florestal de Rio Claro / Produccao de mudas de eucalipto na Paulista de Navarro de Andrade / Vivero forestal de eucalipto de Navarro de Andrade / Rio Claro / Sao Paulo / Brazil
1910 - Four Eucalyptus specimens leave the Paulista nurseries at Rio Claro and are planted among dozens of thousands more. But these have a certain significance. Fifteen years later they will travel as wood logs with Navarro de Andrade to the United States to be processed experimentally into a pulp of cellulose first and further into high quality printed paper, pioneering the birth of a short fibre Brazilian Eucalyptus based Cellulosic Pulp & Paper Industry.


Eucalyptus Botanical Plate at the Museum Navarro de Andrade / Lamina botanica de eucalipto no Museu Navarro de Andrade / Rio Claro / Sao Paulo / Brazil
1913
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Navarro de Andrade visits Joseph Henry Maiden in Sydney during a world tour. Eucalyptus planter and Eucalyptus botanist talk on their favourite trees. Edmundo is gifted by J. H. Maiden with plates from the Herbarium of New South Wales and provided with seeds of over 150 additional Eucalyptus species to the ones he had already trialled.


Museu do Eucalipto / Horto Florestal de Rio Claro / Floresta Estadual Navarro de Andrade / Eucalyptus Museum Navarro de Andrade / Rio Claro Forestry Station / Navarro de Andrade State Forest / Rio Claro / Sao Paulo / Brazil
1916
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Building of Museu do Eucalipto starts at Rio Claro to store the vast amounts of knowledge being generated by Navarro de Andrade, plus artifacts and samples of all products derived from Eucalyptus trees. Nowadays known as the Eucalyptus Museum "Navarro de Andrade", it is unique in the world.


Navarro de Andrade awarded the Grande Medaille Hors Classe on behalf of Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro from the Société Nationale d'Acclimatation de France
1928 - Navarro de Andrade receives the Medaille de St. Hilaire and the Grande Medaille Hors Classe on behalf of Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro from the Société Nationale d'Acclimatation de France.

Navarro de Andrade awareded with the Frank N. Meyer Medal for Plant Genetic Resources from the American Genetics Association
1941
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Navarro de Andrade receives the Frank N. Meyer Medal for Plant Genetic Resources from the American Genetics Association. He would pass away some months later leaving the impressive legacy of 24 million planted eucalypt trees. If not more.

1942 - Edmundo's nephew, Armando Navarro Sampaio, continues the work on Eucalyptus cultivation and starts genetic improvement protocols following the footprints and legacy of his uncle. Soon Brazilian railroads would stop using eucalypt charcoal for power generation and start using eucalypt poles to build the newer electrified lines, but steel factories were to continue demanding their timber for energy generation purposes until nowadays. At the same time one of the major Eucalyptus pulp and paper industries in the world started to develop.


Eucalyptus forest in Brazil, by Celso Foelkel / Bosque de eucalipto en Brasil, por Celso Foelkel
2007
- More than 4 billion Eucalyptus trees of over 150 species grow in the different climates of Brazil. Just a handful of them are prevalent but they have become a strategic timber resource of such a magnitude that whatever happens within this Eucalyptus Agricultural Superpower has a global impact.


Want to follow Andrade's footprints?


Recommended reading


Acknowledgements

To Ralph Mennuci Giesbrecht for his perseverance in the divulgation of history of Brazilian railroads, to Augusto Martini for his perserverance in the fight for preservation of Edmundo's legacy and to Celso Foelkel for his perserverance in the divulgation of Eucalyptus knowledge worldwide. And of course, to Edmundo, wherever he is, for daring. I heard the first thing he asked St. Peter to was "¿entao caro senhor, há algum horto ou jardim con eucaliptos no ceu?".


EUCALYPTOLOGICS: GIT Forestry Consulting Eucalyptus Blog / Information Resources on Eucalyptus Cultivation Worldwide / Forestry Engineering, Eucalyptus Seed, Eucalyptus Plants, Eucalyptus Wood, Eucalyptus Honey, Eucalyptus Essential Oil, Eucalyptus Forests, Eucalyptus Plantations, Eucalyptus Timber, Eucalyptus Lumber, Eucalyptus Furniture, Eucalyptus Veneer, Eucalyptus Plywood, Eucalyptus MDF Board, Eucalyptus Cellulose, Eucalyptus Paper, Eucalyptus Biomass, Eucalyptus Energy, Eucalyptus Floristry, Eucalyptus Foliage, Eucalyptus Garden / Ingenieria Forestal, Semilla de eucalipto, Plantas de eucalipto, Madera de eucalipto, Miel de eucalipto, Aceite Esencial de eucalipto, Bosque de eucalipto, Plantacion de eucalipto, Muebles de eucalipto, Tablero de eucalipto, MDF de eucalipto, Celulosa de eucalipto, Papel de eucalipto, Biomasa de eucalipto, Energia de eucalipto, Ramillo Verde Ornamental de Eucalipto, Jardin de EucaliptoGIT's Eucalyptology Topics

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© 2007 Gustavo Iglesias Trabado. Please contact us if you want to use all or part of this text and photography elsewhere. We like to share, but we do not like rudeness.

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Grandpa, the Giant Eucalyptus... in video

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We have already seen in this blog some images of the Giant Eucalyptus of Spain & Portugal. And while telling the story of these giant eucalypts we had mentioned that among those at Souto da Retorta (Lugo, Spain) tradition marks one of them, O Avó de Chavín (The Grandfather), as the main shrine of a magical place.

Giant Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus in the Northern coast of Galicia, Spain / Ejemplar gigante de Eucalipto blanco en la costa norte de Galicia, España / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal
Today we bring you Grandpa and Loreena McKennitt ... in video!




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Eucalyptus from seed: some key concepts

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Growing Eucalyptus from seed: it is in the details

Gustavo Iglesias Trabado
Contact GIT Forestry Consulting
GIT Forestry Consulting - Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal - www.git-forestry.com - EUCALYPTOLOGICS


Cold hardy Eucalyptus forestry seedling nurseries in Galicia / Viveros de planta de eucalipto resistente a la helada en Galicia / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, SpainFig. 1: Examples of cold hardy Eucalyptus forestry seedling commercial nursery stock for afforestation. (Click image to enlarge)

Propagating Eucalyptus from seed is easy. But easy and efficient are variable concepts that have to be considered depending on plant production targets. Amenity growing and commercial nursery production share the same basic concepts, but a considerable amount of extra details must be considered in each particular case.

The basic idea should always be "each seed matters" no matter at what stage of seedling growing you are. The closer the final results are to this key initial idea, the better. But inbetween the ideal maximum efficiency and total failure many results can be satisfactory from both technical and financial points of view.

Today we present you a small sequence of basic stages from Eucalyptus seed sowing to final plant dispatch using one of the simplest methods. It can be of aid for those growing eucalypts in small amounts and without using fully mechanised industrial processes.


Eucalyptus Seedbed Preparation

Eucalyptus seedbed preparation / Eucalyptus germination / Growing eucalypts from seed / Preparación de semilleros de eucalipto / Germinación y cultivo de semillas de eucalipto / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, SpainFig. 2: Example of simple methodology for Eucalyptus germination substrate mix preparation and Eucalyptus seed activation procedure. (Click image to enlarge)



Eucalyptus germinants to plantable seedling stock

Eucalyptus seedbed preparation / Eucalyptus germination / Growing eucalypts from seed / Preparación de semilleros de eucalipto / Germinación y cultivo de semillas de eucalipto / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, SpainFig. 3: Example of mobilisation to definitive containers and Eucalyptus growing phase to final desired size. (Click image to enlarge)



Devil is in the details

Some of the important details to enhance the efficiency of your Eucalyptus growing method at nursery stage have to do with concepts as seed quality, seed purity, need of pre-germination treatments, sowing methodology and timing, germination procedures, growing environment, nursery infrastructures, production schedule, finished desired plant specifications, alternative methodologies for each step of the productive process and cost vs. efficiency financial analysis.

Plant quality for Eucalyptus forestry seedling production is a mix of:

  • 30% Seed quality --> Genetic background --> Genetic Improvement
  • 30% Seed handling --> Storage, pre-germination & germination --> Nursery Seed Laboratory
  • 30% Plant morphology --> Nursery practice --> Productive Process Engineering
  • 10% Luck --> Shit happens

As you see, more than half the chances of long term success for high quality Eucalyptus plant stock has to do with seed quality. More importantly at industrial scale commercial operations where mechanisation and infrastructure account positively on easier nursery practice.


Wanna know how?


Cold hardy ornamental Eucalyptus nursery in Galicia / Vivero de planta ornamental de eucalipto resistente a la helada en Galicia / Planta Forestal / Planta Ornamental / Eucalipto Jardin / Eucalipto bonsai / Eucalipto nitens / Eucalipto Brillante / Eucalipto globulus / Eucalyptus bonsai / Eucalyptus garden / Eucalyptus Blue Silver / Eucalyptus gunnii / Eucalyptus gunni / Eucalipto guni / Eucalyptologics / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, SpainFig 4: Ornamental Eucalyptus 'Blue Silver' sculpted as big bonsai

Complementary to ornamental Eucalyptus market oriented experience GIT Forestry Consulting's team of Agronomic and Forestry Engineers has conducted forestry-stock nursery trials in Northwestern Spain with select germplasm of over 15 Eucalyptus types having potential for timber production in temperate humid Atlantic climates, and has sorted out detailed individualised solutions to adapt successful productive process engineering to different nursery infrastructures and industrial scale plant production schemes.

Cold hardy forestry seedling Eucalyptus nursery in Galicia / Vivero de planta forestal de eucalipto resistente a la helada en Galicia / Planta Forestal / Eucalipto nitens / Eucalipto Brillante / Eucalipto globulus / Eucalyptologics / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, España, SpainFig. 5: High quality forestry standard Eucalyptus seedlings at nursery


An interesting range of potential products for the Iberian and European forestry plant market has been obtained matching high quality standards.

This know how (what + when + how + why + how much) and our ability to organise training courses for your nursery staff is now available via consulting agreement to wholesale and specialist forestry plant nurseries interested in joining cooperative strategies for production and commercialization.


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EUCALYPTOLOGICS: GIT Forestry Consulting Eucalyptus Blog / Information Resources on Eucalyptus Cultivation Worldwide / Forestry Engineering, Eucalyptus Seed, Eucalyptus Plants, Eucalyptus Wood, Eucalyptus Honey, Eucalyptus Essential Oil, Eucalyptus Forests, Eucalyptus Plantations, Eucalyptus Timber, Eucalyptus Lumber, Eucalyptus Furniture, Eucalyptus Veneer, Eucalyptus Plywood, Eucalyptus MDF Board, Eucalyptus Cellulose, Eucalyptus Paper, Eucalyptus Biomass, Eucalyptus Energy, Eucalyptus Floristry, Eucalyptus Foliage, Eucalyptus Garden / Ingenieria Forestal, Semilla de eucalipto, Plantas de eucalipto, Madera de eucalipto, Miel de eucalipto, Aceite Esencial de eucalipto, Bosque de eucalipto, Plantacion de eucalipto, Muebles de eucalipto, Tablero de eucalipto, MDF de eucalipto, Celulosa de eucalipto, Papel de eucalipto, Biomasa de eucalipto, Energia de eucalipto, Ramillo Verde Ornamental de Eucalipto, Jardin de EucaliptoGIT's Eucalyptology Topics

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© 2007 Gustavo Iglesias Trabado. Please contact us if you want to use all or part of this text and photography elsewhere. We like to share, but we do not like rudeness.

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Eucalyptus Newsletter nº 11 - by Celso Foelkel

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by Celso Foelkel

Summary of Contents
  • Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 6 (Portuguese): "Eco-efficiency in managing pulp fiber losses and paper broke generation"
  • Eucalyptus Online Book Chapter 4 (English):"Vessel elements and Eucalyptus pulps"
  • Online Technical References
  • References on Events and Courses
  • Online Technical Journals
  • Euca-Links
  • Eucalyptus Photo Gallery
  • A Field Guide to the Eucalyptus and Plantation Forest Trees
  • The Friends of the Eucalyptus - Dr. Laercio Couto
  • Technical mini-article by Celso Foelkel: Eucalyptus planted forests and water consumption

Grau Celsius - Celsius Degree - Celso Foelkel Eucalyptus Wisdom

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Eucalyptus in Oregon: Australia in the Pacific Northwest.

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Eucalyptus trials in Oregon Country: Stan & Lee
Some early work with Australian trees in the Pacific Northwest

Gustavo Iglesias Trabado Contact GIT Forestry Consulting
GIT Forestry Consulting - Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal - www.git-forestry.com

Stan Gessler, forester from Washington, among Australian Eucalyptus / Eucalyptus in Oregon, Washington and British Columbia / Eucalyptus in the Pacific Northwest / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Galicia, Spain, España
The cultivation of Eucalyptus in the Pacific Northwest has had to do with trialling of species for relatively a long time now, sometimes as ornamentals and other times as part of forestry hardwood trials. It is however a relatively recent trend, especially if compared to the very old tradition for the cultivation of Eucalyptus in California.

One of the steps in this process of increasing eucalypt growing had to do with the works of an Oregonian forester, keen tree grower and adventurous fan of the Australian trees.

Lee O. Hunt (1912?-2002), who would later be President of the Douglas County Small Woodland Association, started methodic experimentation at nursery and field trials with 14 species of Eucalyptus back in 1971, focusing in those with good prospects for timber production in short rotations and having enough potential tolerance to cold as to be grown in Southwestern Oregon and survive winters there.


Some known Eucalyptus trial locations in Oregon State

Planting at different trial locations ranging from 150 to 800 m altitude took place along the 1970's, and response to frost damage and growth rates where assessed, making it an interesting study of acclimation for the tested seed provenances of Eucalyptus. Some of the known places where these studies and those later ones made by other foresters took place are:


  • North Williamette Experiment Station (Oregon State University, Clackamas County), where temperatures have reached absolute minima of -17ºC in the 1971-2000 period. Earlier Eucalyptus trials assessed by Dr. Robert L. Ticknor, who was also President of the American Rhododendron Society.
  • Near Bridge (Douglas County, OR, Highway 42, in the western slope of the Coast Range): 4 species planted in 1975 by Lee O. Hunt.
  • Schofield Creek (near Reedsford, Douglas County, OR, 87 km to the NW of Roseburg): 6 species planted in 1978 by Lee O. Hunt.
  • Willis Creek Tree Farm (near Winston, Douglas County, OR): 7 species planted in 1979, 8 additional species in 1981, 4 extra species in 1982 by Lee O. Hunt. Suffered temperatures as low as -16ºC during the first winters, albeit in milder winters they did not reach absolute minima below -10ºC.
  • Near Warren (to the Northwest of Vancouver, OR) : 3 species in 1984 by Oregon State University.
  • Near Siletz (Lincoln County, OR): 3 species in 1985 by OSU.
  • Near Corvallis: 2 species in 1987 by OSU.

Some of the eucalypt species trialled for survival %, tolerance to cold and growth rates in Oregon within this period (1971-1987) were:


Eucalyptus camphora - E. cinerea - E. coccifera - E. dalrympleana - E. delegatensis - E. glaucescens - E. globulus - E. gunnii ssp. gunnii - E. gunnii ssp. archeri - E. gunnii ssp. divaricata - E. irbyi (E. viminalis x dalrympleana) - E. nitens - E. nova-anglica - E. pauciflora - E. stelluata - E. subcrenulata - E. viminalis - E. urnigera


The eucalypts of Stan & Lee

Part of the seed used in these horticultural and forestry trials was sourced by Dr. Stanley Gessel (1917-1995), Professor of Forest Soils and later Dean of the College of Forest Resources at the University of Washington (Seattle, WA), who had visited some of the Australian eucalypt forests and brought back to the USA fresh Eucalyptus seedlots from CSIRO. From these seeds he would also be later responsible of plantings within Seattle and a major influence for future eucalypt growers in the shores of the Puget Sound.

Lee O. Hunt's experimental Eucalyptus nursery at Winston provided also several thousand seedlings per year to local private woodland owners interested in fast growing species with an aim to firewood production during the late 1970's and the 1980's, being a vector for the early introduction of many previously unheard of Eucalyptus taxa in Oregon State and the Pacific Northwest.


From those seeds, these fruits

After the trial efforts previously mentioned ceased in the early 1990's, many new species of Eucalyptus trees had well spread as exotic ornamental or landscape trees in many areas of Oregon, Washington and the British Columbia. Specialist nurseries started propagating these and other newer species which were later submitted to cold hardiness tests in the gardens of adventurous exotic plant growers.

As an example of this horticultural trend our friend Ian Barclay, currently involved in The Desert Northwest project, has tested over 115 eucalypt species in Olympia and Poulsbo (WA) from the the 1990's onwards. If you have not yet read about cold hardy eucalyptus in Ian's The Hardy Eucalyptus Page, you are certainly missing a great information resource on these plants.


Eucalyptus in Oregon: where are Lee's trees?

Willis Creek Eucalyptus Tree Farm, Winston, Oregon / Eucalyptus in Oregon / Lee O. Hunt / Eucalyptus in the Pacific Northwest / GIT Forestry Consulting, Consultoría y Servicios de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Lugo, Galicia, SpainPotential locations of Lee O. Hunt's Willis Creek Tree Farm Eucalyptus trials
(click to enlarge)

Help us find Stan & Lee's trees! If you live near Roseburg or have easy access to Douglas County in Southwestern Oregon, follow the footprints of Lee Hunt, and hunt the surviving Eucalyptus of these old trials. Some 20 to 30 year old at the moment if still standing, they should give hints on adult tree size achieved by these tree species in the area and could be interesting seed sources representative of cold hardy Oregonian Eucalyptus local races.

If you decide to take such a journey, remember to watch these links first:




Eucalyptus species identification: Contact GIT Forestry Consulting / Identificación de especies de eucalipto: Contacte a GIT Forestry Consulting

Interesting Literature

Jacobs, Maxwell R. (1970) The genus Eucalyptus in world forestry. Seattle, WA: College of Forest Resources, University of Washington; October 1970.

Ticknor, Robert L. (1974) Landscape tree performance. Circular of Information 622. Corvallis, OR: Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University.

Hunt, Lee O. (1978) Speaking for the Private Woodland Owner. Society of American Foresters Journal of Forestry, Volume 76, 12:1 , pp. 781-781

Hunt, Lee O. (1983) Adaptability of some Eucalyptus species in southwest Oregon. In: Standiford, Richard B & Ledig, F Thomas, technical coordinators. Proceedings of a work-shop on
Eucalyptus in California, June 14-16, 1983, Sacramento, California. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW 69. Berkeley, CA: Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 9-13

Hunt, Lee O. & Logan, Robert S. (1986) Propagation of Eucalyptus Nursery Seedlings. Tree Planters' Notes 37(2):3-7

Hibbs, David E. (1986) Stand management: Growing eucalypts in Western Oregon. Extension circular no. 1198 - Oregon State University, Extension Service (USA)

Giordano, Peter A ; Hibbs, David E; Fletcher, R; Landgren, Chal; Oester, Paul & Rogers, Bill (1993) Hardwood Species Trials in Oregon. Tree Planters' Notes 44(1):38-42

Turner, John ; Gessel, Stanley P.; & Lambert, Marcia J. (1999) Sustainable Management of Native and Exotic Plantations in Australia. In: Planted Forests: Contributions to the Quest for Sustainable Societies, Chapter 16. New Forests 7(1-3) & 8(1).

Barclay, Ian (2002) Hardy Eucalypts in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest Palm & Exotic Plant Society. Hardy Palm International, Issue #50.


EUCALYPTOLOGICS: GIT Forestry Consulting Eucalyptus Blog / Information Resources on Eucalyptus Cultivation Worldwide / Forestry Engineering, Eucalyptus Seed, Eucalyptus Plants, Eucalyptus Wood, Eucalyptus Honey, Eucalyptus Essential Oil, Eucalyptus Forests, Eucalyptus Plantations, Eucalyptus Timber, Eucalyptus Lumber, Eucalyptus Furniture, Eucalyptus Veneer, Eucalyptus Plywood, Eucalyptus MDF Board, Eucalyptus Cellulose, Eucalyptus Paper, Eucalyptus Biomass, Eucalyptus Energy, Eucalyptus Floristry, Eucalyptus Foliage, Eucalyptus Garden / Ingenieria Forestal, Semilla de eucalipto, Plantas de eucalipto, Madera de eucalipto, Miel de eucalipto, Aceite Esencial de eucalipto, Bosque de eucalipto, Plantacion de eucalipto, Muebles de eucalipto, Tablero de eucalipto, MDF de eucalipto, Celulosa de eucalipto, Papel de eucalipto, Biomasa de eucalipto, Energia de eucalipto, Ramillo Verde Ornamental de Eucalipto, Jardin de EucaliptoGIT's Eucalyptology Topics

Subscribe to receive EUCALYPTOLOGICS via RSS


© 2007 Gustavo Iglesias Trabado. Please contact us if you want to use all or part of this text and photography elsewhere. We like to share, but we do not like rudeness.

Click to Read Full Story...


GIT's Eucalyptology Topics
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